Spraying water at a certain angle and pressure, and then letting it fall by its own weight in tiny droplets on the soil and product is called “Sprinkler Irrigation”. This method is called sprinkler irrigation, because the water looks like the natural rain. Sprinkle irrigation can be used in any soil condition, on slopes, flat lands, and almost on any types of plants conveniently. Water with a lower flow rate in comparison to the flow rate surface irrigation requires can be used. Water is sprayed through the nozzles at a certain pressure and released to the atmosphere just like it rains normally. Water, dropped on the ground penetrates into the soil and accumulated around the root of the plant. In sprinkler irrigation, water comes to the nozzles at a certain pressure, and falls on the ground as an artificial rain.
A water installation consisted of a main pipe and lateral lines and a water pump generating the necessary pressure are required for using this method. The pressure is usually generated by a pump unit. Self-pressurized systems called closed circuit are available in some regions of Turkey. Sprinkler heads identify the system. There are different types of sprinkler heads, depending on the plant, soil, and financial issues.What are the operating systems of sprinkler irrigation methods?
Pump unit, main pipe and laterals are portable in this system.
Semi Portable Systems
Pump unit and main pipeline are fixed, and laterals are portable in this system.
Non-portable (Fixed) Systems
Pump, main pipe, and laterals are fixed in this system.
Efficient use of water. Water is utilized highly at places where irrigation water supplies are low.
Irrigation can be possible on sloped land types with irregular shapes (topography) without causing erosion.
Eliminates the condition, in which due to soil formation the plant cannot reach to soil surface during germination period.
Economized operating expenses and labor.
The most suitable irrigation for shallow, permeable soil with low depth.
Salt particles carried by the wind and accumulated on the plants at sea sides, dust and harmful insects can be washed off by sprinkler irrigation.
The most suitable irrigation type, where water table is high and drainage is a problem, as the water flow can be controlled in sprinkler irrigation.
There is no need for field ditches thus, the number agricultural areas are increased, and agricultural enterprises are easily operated.
Soluble artificial fertilizers can be delivered to plants with irrigation water, no need for any labor.
Eliminates field contouring expenses thus, provides saving in time and energy.
Initial cost is high especially for fixed systems.
Winds have negative effects on water distribution. Irrigation should be preferably carried on early in the morning or at around sunset time, when it is less windy.
Pressure requires power. This means spending energy, and expense.
Learning the advantages of using sprinkler irrigation makes it more and more preferable.
Commercial fertilizers can be carried by water delivered to plants by sprinkler irrigation. Delivering fertilizers carried by irrigation water to soil provides various advantages.
Homogenous distribution of fertilizers in soil
Extends the useful economic life of tools and equipment
Optimum fertilization in optimum time
Increase in product quality and quantity
Commercial fertilizers can be carried by water delivered to plants by sprinkler irrigation. Irrigation continues after the fertilizers have been ejected, thus the fertilizers are washed away from pipes and heads. Fertilizer solutions accumulated on leaves are also washed off.